Published in Crystal, Uncategorized.
Crystallographic defects are interruptions of regular patterns in crystalline solids. They are common because positions of atoms or molecules at repeating fixed distances determined by the unit cell parameters in crystals, which exhibit a periodic crystal structure, are usually imperfect.
Point defects are defects that occur only at or around a single lattice point. They are not extended in space in any dimension. Strict limits for how small a point defect is are generally not defined explicitly. However, these defects typically involve at most a few extra or missing atoms. Larger defects in an ordered structure are usually considered dislocation loops. For historical reasons, many point defects, especially in ionic crystals, are called centers: for example a vacancy in many ionic solids is called a luminescence center, a color center, or F-center. These dislocations permit ionic transport through crystals leading to electrochemical reactions. These are frequently specified using Kröger–Vink notation.